Ganoderma lingzhi Sheng H. Wu, Y. Cao & Y.C. Dai, in Cao, Wu & Dai
Index Fungorum number: 564240; Faceoffungi number: xxx
Basidiome annual, stipitate, strongly laccate, woody. Pileus 8–12 × 3–8 cm, up to 1.5 cm thick at the base, suborbicular to flabelliform, upper surface; reddish brown (8E8) to brownish orange (6C8), radially rugose, irregularly ruptured crust overlying the context. Margin; wavy, concolourous with the pileus, lower surface; whitish brown (6E3). Hymenophore up to 20 mm long, indistinctly stratose; pores initially greyish brown (6E3), bruising brown, pores circular, 4–5 per mm. Context up to 1.5 cm thick, duplex, dry, lower layer brown (6E4) to dark brown (7F8), fibrous, composed of coarse loose fibrils; upper layer dark brown (7F8), corky. Stipe eccentric, thick, short, sub cylindrical, concolorous with the pileus, 4 × 1 cm. Basidiospores (n = 25) (7.6–)8.1–9.5–10.1(10.5–) × (–6.5)7.1–7.5–8.1(–8.5) μm (Qm = 1.5, Q = 1.2–1.6, with myxosporium). (n = 25) (6.5–)6.8–8.4–9.4(–9.8) × (4.6–)5.7–6.5–7.6(–7.9) μm (Qm = 1.5, Q = 1.2–1.8, without myxosporium), ellipsoid, light brown (6D4), with a brown (6F4) eusporium bearing fine, short and distinct echinulae, overlaid by a hyaline myxosporium. Pileipellis a hymeniderm, brownish orange (6C8), clavate like cells, dextrinoid. Context trimitic; generative hyphae (n = 20) (0.5–1.1–1.6) μm in width, colorless, thin-walled; skeletal hyphae (n = 20) (3.6–5.1–6.0) μm in width, thick walled, nearly solid, sometimes branched, brownish orange (6C8); binding hyphae (n = 20) (2.0–3.1–4.2) μm in width, thick walled, branched, nearly solid, light orange (5A5) to brownish orange (6C8). (Fig 1)
Habitat: On a rotten hardwood, in dry dipterocarp forest and in upper mixed deciduous forest and growing up from soil.
Specimens examined: LAOS, Xiengkhouang Province, Phoukoud District, Ngod Phae Village, Evergreen rainforest, 19°53′N–103°23′E, elev. 1141 m, 19 January 2018, P. Phengsintham (GACP18011910, GACP18011911).
Distribution: in temperate area and mainly in Fagaceae forests of East Asia.
Notes: Ganoderma lingzhi was introduced for “Lingzhi”, a species with a wide natural distribution in temperate area and mainly in Fagaceae forests of East Asia (Cao et al. 2012). Using both morphological and phylogenetic evidence, this name unambiguously represents the economically important and widely cultivated Lingzhi species (Dai et al. 2017). Ganoderma lingzhi is characterized by its melanoid bands in the context, light buff to buff colour context, thick dissepiments, absence of concentric growth zones in the context, (10.7 × 5.8) μm size basidiospores and sulphur yellow to straw coloured pore surface at maturity (Cao et al. 2012). This species was long being assigned to G. lucidum since both species have a reddish brown pileal surface, similarsized basidiospores and mostly regular clavate cuticle cells. However, G. lingzhi differentiate from G. lucidum by the presence of melanoid bands in the context, a yellow pore surface and thick dissepiments (80–120 μm) at maturity (Cao et al. 2012). Among the Chinese Ganoderma species, G. flexipes, G. multipileum, G. sichuanense, G. tropicum and G. tsugae are the mostly similar species to G. lingzhi because they share a reddish brown pileal surface, similar basidiospores and cuticle cells. Nevertheless, G. lingzhi can be distinguished from former species by several morphological characteristics (Cao et al. 2012). (from Hapuarachchi et al. 2019)