Hymenopellis raphanipes (Berk.) R.H. Petersen
Basidiomata very small to large. Pileus 1–12 cm, convex to applanate with low umbo to slightly concave, glutinous when wet, grayish brown, yellowish brown, light brown, brown to blackish brown (5F6–5F8, 6E5–6E7, 6F3–6F8) over disc or when immature, smooth with nearly black “veins” radiating from the disc onto or over the limb, sometimes with reticulate “veins” near the margin; Context white to dirty white, unchanging in color when cut. Lamellae adnate to sinuate or slightly decurrent, subdistant, with lamellulae, thick, white to cream; lamellar edge white. Stipe 2–30 × 0.2–2.1 cm, subcylindrical, enlarged at ground line, surface dirty white to grayish, densely covered with brownish felted squamules but nearly white at apex; pseudorhiza dirty white. Taste mild to somewhat sour; odor indistinct. Spore print white to cream. Lamellar trama ± regular, composed of branching, nearly colorless and hyaline, slightly thick-walled (≤ 1 μm thick), filamentous to inflated hyphae 3–25 μm wide. Basidia (Fig. 3d; Fig. 4d) 34–80 × 9–20 μm, 2-spored or 4-spored, thin-walled, colorless hyaline, without any siderophilous granulation; sterigmata up to 12 μm in length. Spores (Fig. 3c; Fig. 4c) [240/12/11] (13) 14–18 (21) × (9) 10–13 (16) μm, Q = (1.06) 1.20–1.50 (1.64), Q = 1.30 ± 0.09, ellipsoid, ovoid to sublimoniform, thin-walled, colorless and hyaline, non-amyloid, non-dextrinoid. Pleurocystidia (Figs. 3e, 4e) 70–200 × 17–52 μm, pedicellate, fusiforms with prominent capitate apex, sometimes incrusted brownish to golden substances, thin-walled to slightly thick-walled, colorless and hyaline. Cheilocystidia (Figs. 3b, 4b) 25–240 × 5–41 μm, crowded and numerous, pedicellate, fusiform, narrowly clavate, subcylindrical to cylindrical, thin-walled, colorless and hyaline. Pileipellis (Figs. 3a, 4a) an ixohymeniderm of 120–190 μm thick, composed of clavate, broadly clavate to sphaeropedunculate, brownish to brown intracellularly pigmented cells (18–80 × 10–47 μm) embedded in a gelatinized matrix. Pileocystidia (Figs. 3a, 4a) abundant, subcylindrical to narrowly fusiform, 70–190 × 3–12 μm, thin-walled, nearly colorless or with brownish to brown intracellular pigment; apex acute or narrowly rounded. Stipitipellis composed of vertically arranged, branching, slightly yellow to slight brown, hyaline, slightly thick-walled (ca. 0.5 μm thick), filamentous hyphae 3–25 μm broad. Caulocystidia (Figs. 3f, 4f) 45–250 × 8–22 μm, numerous and crowded, caespitose, narrowly clavate to subcylindrical, thin- to slightly thick-walled (ca. 0.5 μm thick), with grayish brown to yellowish brown intracellular pigment, occasionally nearly colorless and hyaline. Clamp connections abundant in every part of 4-spored basidioma, but absent in 2-spored basidioma.
Habitat and known distribution: Growing on decaying wood buried in soil; during Spring and Summer (April to August) at 300–2400 m elev., in East and South Asia. Originally described from Sikkim, India.
Specimens examined: CHINA. Guangdong Province: Zhaoqing, Fengkai County, Heishiding Natural Reserve, elev. 500 m, 13 April 2013, Fang Li 1214 (HKAS 93144!). Guangxi Autonomous Region: Guilin, Maoershan National Natural Reserve, elev. 1900 m, 24 July 2012, Qing Cai 873 (HKAS 75607!). Hubei Province: Huanggang, Macheng City, Wunaoshan National Forest Park, elev. 320 m, 26 June 2013, Yan-Jia Hao 861 (HKAS 80141!). Jiangsu Province Lianyungang, Huaguoshan, elev. unknown, 27 August 2011, Xiang-Huang Wang 3030 (HKAS 93083!). SichuanProvince: Mianyang, elev. unknown, date unknown, Xin-Sheng He s.n. (HKAS 93099!). Yunnan Province: Tengchong County, Gaoligongshan National Natural Reserve, elev. 2090 m, 11 August 2010, Yan-Jia Hao 236 (HKAS 69220!); Baoshan, the border of Baoshan District and Tengchong County, elev. 2400 m, 8 August 2011, Yan-Jia Hao 409 (HKAS 71518!); Kunming, Kunming Institute of Botany, elev. 1980 m, 20 August 2001, Fu-Qiang Yu 531 (HKAS 38682!); same location, 10 May 2002, Zhu-Liang Yang 3223 (HKAS 39593!); same location, Li-Fang Zhang 163 (HKAS 42391!). REPUBLIC OF KOREA. Inchon, 16 August 2011, Xiao-Fei Shi 805 (HKAS 93070!). Specimens of Oudemansiella furfuracea examined: CANADA. Ontario: Halmiton, McMaster University, 2 September 2015, elev. 70 m, Bang Feng 1935 (HKAS 93109!); same data and location, Bang Feng 1939 (HKAS 93110!).
Fig. 1 Phylogenetic tree generated from the combined ITS and nrLSU dataset using ML method. Bootstrap values (≥ 50%) derived from ML analysis and posterior probabilities from Bayesian inference (≥ 0.95) are shown above or beneath the branches. Sequences of cultures and cultivated basidiomata of “Heipijizong” are highlighted in blue. “2-spored” or “4-spored” indicates that the basidia of the collection are with 2 or 4 sterigmata.