Agaricales » ‎Agaricaceae » Chlorophyllum

Chlorophyllum hortense

Chlorophyllum hortense (Murrill) Vellinga.

Index Fungorumnumber: IF 374396; Facesoffungi number: FoF 03444

Pileus 72–98 mm, convex, expanding to umbonate with distinctly umbo, with straight margin; surface covered with light-brown to yellow-brown (5D4–5) glabrous calotte at center, with brownish-yellow (5C7–8) irregular patches or squamules toward the margin, on orang white to light-orange (5A2–4) background; margin sulcate or slightly striate, white. Lamellae free, narrowly fusiform, up to 7 mm wide, white, crowded, lamella-edge eroded. Stipe 60–110 × 6–7 mm, cylindrical, slightly wider to base; surface smooth, white. Annulus superonate, moveable, white, with brownish-yellow (5C7–8) on the upper part. Context white in pileus, white in stipe and hollow. All parts of basidiomata turn orange-white (5A2) when touched. Taste peanut-like. Smell mild. Spore print white.


Basidiospores [50,2,1] 6.0–8.5 × 5.3–6.5 µm, avl × avw = 7.5 × 5.8 µm, Q = 1.2–1.54, Qav = 1.3, in side-view broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid amygdaliform, in frontal view ellipsoid, oblong, without germ pore, hyaline, dextrinoid, congophilous, cyanophilous, metachromatic. Basidia 25–30 × 8–11.5 _m, clavate, hyaline, 2-spored, occasionally 1-spored. Lamella edge sterile, with abundant cheilocystidia. Cheilocystidia 35–50 × 7–9 µm, narrowly clavate, cylindrical, sometimes with short apical excrescence or appendage, colorless. Pleurocystidia absent. Pileus covering of scales a trichoderm made up of cylindrical, narrowly clavate elements with long stalk, 30–155 × 6.3–16 µm, colorless or with pale brown parietal pigment, with an encrusted wall in some elements and lower hyphae. Stipe covering a cutis made up of cylindrical hyphae and elements, colorless, 10 µm wide. Clamp connections not observed.


Habitat and distribution: growing in large groups, in grasslands, saprotrophic on nutrient-rich soil.


Material examined: Thailand, Chiang Rai Province, Muang District, Mae Korn District, 22 July 2010, P. Sysouphanthong, BJP54 (MFLU 12-1783); Muang District, Pongphabath Village, 1 July 2018, P. Sysouphanthong, PS2018-31 (MFLU 19-2352).


Notes: Chlorophyllum hortense can be recognized by light-brown to yellow-brown irregular patches on white to light-orange pileus and sulcate or striate margin, white and free lamellae with a white spore print, an annulus, oblong ovoid to oblong amygdaliform, and hyaline basidiospores without a germ pore, 2-spored basidia, narrowly clavate to cylindrical cheilocystidia, trichodermal pileus covering made up of cylindrical to narrowly clavate elements, and absence of clamp connections. It should be noted that most species of lepiotaceous fungi have 4-spored basidia; only a handful of species in various genera. are characterized by 2-spored basidia. This species has been described by several mycologists [27,50], and because of the basidiospores without a germ pore, it was accommodated in Leucoagaricus. It is one of the most widespread species in Chlorophyllum. A record from India [51] might refer to C. demangei, because of the 4-spored basidia.The species is found throughout the tropics in diverse, mostly man-influenced habitats, on dung, compost, and soil [14,27]. Diversity 2021, 13, 666 17 of 43 Chlorophyllum globosum is now known from various countries in Africa (Benin, Cameroon, and South Africa) and Asia (India, Laos, Thailand, and China). The occurrence in some countries.


Fig. 1 Maximum Likelihood tree of Chlorophyllum based on analysis of nrITS-LSU-rpb2 sequence data. Bootstrap values (ML/B) are given above the branches. Bootstrap values for maximum likelihood equal to or greater than >60 and Bayesian posterior probabilities >0.95 are placed above the branches. Abbreviations are as follows: A. = Agaricus, C = Chlorophyllum, and Cl = Clarkeinda. Clarkeinda trachodes and Agaricus campestris are used as outgroup. New sequences are in bold type.